The LANE/LAIN(E)s of Ulster, Ireland, Chapter 7
The "LANE Family" section of this site is divided into 8 chapters and 8 appendices. Please read in sequence by following the links at the bottom of each page or use the "Quick Nav" at top right. Please note the companion photo galleries which show the LANE family house ruins in Co. Tyrone, Ireland; the LANEs' Parish church in Lissan; the homes and graves of the LANEs in Jarrow, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Note the styles: links to individual images:…#11; citation of sources: …ix) If you wish to select individual chapters, please click on the top left link to the Sitemap page.
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Children (iv): Joseph LANE [b. 1848] & wife Jane LANE (née STRONG).
Joseph & Jane's Story
Joseph LANE was born about 1848 at Belfast …r/ii), r/iii), r/iv). His family was recorded living at Ross St Belfast in 1862 …r/xLv) and then at 2 Craig's Terrace Belfast in 1872 …r/viii). See here for a previous discussion of when the LANEs left Co. Tyrone for Belfast.
After 1872 …r/viii) the extended LANE family had moved to an area in County Durham just south across the River Tyne from Newcastle upon Tyne… which is in the neighbouring county of Northumberland. On 14 Dec 1874, James' eldest daughter Jane STRONG (née LAINE) [my g-g-mother] emigrated to New Zealand with her husband Robert STRONG …n/i). In the previous week, on 9 Dec 1874, my g-g-aunt Jane STRONG (aged 20 and a daughter of Robert STRONG's first marriage) married Joseph LANE, 26 year old Marine Engineer, in the Swinburne St Wesleyan Chapel, Jarrow, Co Durham, UK. The marriage register refers to witnesses William LANE and Sarah Ann LANE; parents James LANE, yarn dresser and Robert STRONGE, Shipwright …r/ii. (Note that the relationship of Sarah Anne to James and Joseph has now been securely proven, but the relationship of William the marriage witness is still not certain). At the time of his marriage, Joseph lived at 22 Sheldon Street, Jarrow …r/ii). The front page of the “The Belfast Newsletter” described their marriage:
LANE—STRONGE Dec. 9, a the Wesleyan Methodist Church, Jarrow-on-Tyne. by the Rev. W.H. Walker, Joseph Lane , engineer, s.s. Taira, London, first son of Mr. James Lane, to Jane, second daughter of Mr Robert Stronge, both of Belfast.…r/xLvi)
Jane LANE (née STRONG) had moved in with the extended LANE family who lived around the Jarrow area. At the time of her marriage, both she and her husband lived at 22 Sheldon Street, Jarrow …r/ii). Her subsequent addresses and those of the other LANEs are shown in the table at the base of this page. This table also details the relationships of the various LANE households. The relationships are analysed further in a descendant report.
The marriage register's description of "Robert STRONGE, Shipwright" throws light on Robert's occupation. Robert's occupation of shipwright (construction and repair of ships) would be quite consistent with Robert's reference from the mayor of Belfast which said: "I have known Mr Robert STRONGE for many years as foreman and general manager of the extensive business of Mr James McCRACKEN, builder, of this town..." …fb/iii) Since Joseph LANE was a marine engineer he would have a closer appreciation of what Robert's main duties and/ or experience were. Shipwright should not be confused with a ship's carpenter. The shipwright would have to be part of an on-shore capitalised industry such as that of of Mr James McCRACKEN, builder…r/vii , whereas the ship's carpenter merely travelled with the ship.
Jane & Joseph LANE's story continued.
Jane and Joseph LANE may have moved to Strood in Kent UK, since their son Joseph was born in Strood in 1883 …r/xiii), r/v). This would have placed them near important shipping lanes. However, Vin Mullen …fb/viii), suggested that it is also possible that in the less regulated days, the seafarers sometimes took their wives or children with them on short sailing routes, such as Newcastle to Strood. Thus Joseph could have been born on his mother's short holiday. There was no record of any of our LANEs in the 1891 Census …r/iv). In the 1901 & 1911 Censuses, the family lived a more expensive part of Jarrow at 25 Bede Burn Rd …r/v-vi),…#11, 12, 13 and members of the family lived there until 1956. In 2000 this terrace was sold for £54,500. 13 terraces were sold in Bede Burn Rd between 2005-2009 for an average of £175,165 …n/ii). See the photos below of the terrace housing in Bede Burn Road. On the left is a view in 2003 of the LANE family home. On the right is a 1925 - 1930 photo, reproduced here with the kind permission of the Newcastle Libraries & Information Service.
In 1901 the household consisted of Jane (46) Josephine Jane (22), Robert Strong (20), Joseph 18, and Mary (9). Father Joseph and the eldest son James (24) were not present at the time of the census r/v). Pat Rooney, a direct descendant of Robert Strong LANE told me of family tradition concerning Jane and Joseph's children: "James and Joseph LANE were both sea-going. Robert Strong LANE was the only one of the 5 siblings to marry. Josephine (known as Cissie) remained in the family home of 25 Bede Burn Rd up to her death. I know that Auntie Cissie had had TB"…fb/v) . Developing Pat's information, perhaps Cissie had contracted TB from her mother Jane LANE (née STRONG), since Jane lost her mother and two young brothers to TB in 1861…fb/vi) , and at least three of Jane's sister Agnes' children died of TB in New Zealand…r/xiv) . Josephine's cause of death was given as pulmonary tuberculosis in her death certificate…r/xxi). Burial records in Jarrow show that all of Joseph and Jane's immediate family lived at 25 Bede Burn Rd, Jarrow at the time of their death, with the exception of the only sibling who married, Robert Strong LANE…r/xii). Joseph (Snr.) died at Palmers shipbuilding and iron company’s works Jarrow (during a WWI bombing raid by a Zeppelin)…n/iii-iv)… see the end of this chapter. Joseph (Jnr) died at 51 Elmfield-road Gosforth Northumberland which was probably a hospital address. Joseph (Jnr) died of a stomach ulcer and resulting syncope (not TB), his occupation at his death was given as a sea-going engineer, with his home address as 25 Bede Rurn Road, Jarrow…r/xxii),fb/vii).
The LANE family lived in a wealthy section of Jarrow. Probate records demonstrate this affluence: Joseph (Snr.) left £2710 9s. 1d in 1915 to his wife Jane, Mary left £1024 17s. 4d. in 1920 to her mother Jane, Joseph (Jnr.) left £901 15s. 7d. in Feb 1927 to his mother Jane. Jane must not have wasted these bequests, since she left £5058 3s. 2d. in July 1927 to “James LANE marine engineer and Robert Strong LANE school-master”… presumably her daughter Cissie was mentioned in the Will, since she continued living in the family home. James LANE subsequently left £20,521 2s. on 22 Nov 1949 to “Lloyds Bank Ltd” (mortgagor or executor?). Some wealth seemed to be retained in the family, since Cissie left £12,093 16s. 1d. on 11 April 1956 to “Robert Strong LANE (RSL) retired schoolmaster, John George Leslie PATTIE solicitor, Robert Playfair LANE (RSL's son) commercial clerk and Lancelot George THOMPSON (RSL's son-in-law) schoolmaster”…fb/iv),fb/vii).
Pictured above are Robert Strong (Bob) LANE graduating from King’s College, Newcastle in the University of Durham (6 Oct 1880–1967), and also Josephine Jane (Cissie) LANE (1879 - 22 Jan 1956).
|#||Name||Status||DOB||Address in 1874 r/ii)||Address in 1881 r/iii)||Address in 1891 r/iv)||Address in 1901 r/v)||Address in 1911 r/vi)|
|4||Josephine Jane LANE||dau||1879||3||7||7|
|5||Robert Strong LANE||son||1880||3||7||6 with wife
|James* (below) died in 1884. No later record found of his wife Margaret*.|
|Sarah* (below) was a witness to the marriage of (1) and (2) in 1874. She married William Davison in 1881. At her marriage she was described as daughter of James LANE watchman. James was a watchman at the gasworks at time of death. No records of her DAVI(D)SON family after 1883 when her son William James was born.|
|10*||Sarah Anne LANE||dau||1842||4 (with parents)
then 8 when married DAVI(D)SON
|William* (below) was probably a witness to the marriage of (1) and (2) in 1874 & is also probably the son of (8) & (9).
No records of this family after 1881. His DOB, Irish origin and location suggest relationship, however, confirmation needed.
|13||James William LAIN||son||1878||5|
|Note: James* and Margaret *(8 & 9) are parents of (1), (10) and probably (11). Key: * = Born in Ireland|
|Address||Status in 2009 fb/viii|
|1||22 Sheldon Street, Jarrow, Durham||Bus station|
|2||Vessel 'Despatch', Place; Leigh,Essex.||-|
|3||8 Edgar St, Jarrow.||Demolished & redeveloped for a flyover and "Greenbank Estate" in abt 1964.|
|4||3 Maud St, Jarrow.||Demolished in abt 1964, Redeveloped as "Wuppertal Estate".|
|5||20 Victoria Street, Gateshead, Durham.||New Housing estate|
|6||12 Wansbeck Street, Jarrow.||Still there.|
|7||25 Bede Burn Rd, Jarrow, Durham.||Still there.|
|8||6 Hope St, Jarrow, Durham.||New Housing estate|
Further Note: Recently, the 1911 Census confirmed that the following LAINE family was unrelated since the head of the family came from Co. Queens (Laois) in Ireland, rather than just Ireland as in the 1901 Census. The Census records showed that In 1881 they lived at 8 Tullock St Elswick, Northumberland and then in 1901 & 1911 at 86 Walter St Jarrow, Durham. The names were: William Henry LAINE (Head), Phoebia Emily (wife), Martha (sister-in-law), Sarah J. (sister), Robert Warner (son), Fredrick Walter (son). William was manager of the Chronicle News office in 1901 and then a newspaper clerk (reporter?) working from home in 1911. It is interesting to speculate that his spelling of his own name led him to report the unveiling of a memorial, where one of the names was “Joseph Laine (sic), who was killed at Palmers Works during the air raid on June 15, 1915.”…n/ix)
Chronology of Joseph LANE's Life
- Born at Belfast, Co. Antrim, Ireland, to James and Mary LANE.…r/ii, iv).
- Married to Jane STRONG on 9 Dec, 1874 at Swinburne East Chapel, Jarrow, and lived at 22 Sheldon St Jarrow…r/ii).
- Certified 2nd Class Engineer at London on 22 Jan 1874…r/xv).
- Voyage on "Tiara" to Port Said from London…r/xv).
- Voyages on "Bucentaur" to Port Said, including stops at the ports of London, Newcastle on Tyne, Bristol r/xv).
- Birth of son James, Jarrow, Durham Co., UK…r/xvi).
- Lived at 43 Elson Ln, Jarrow…r/xv).
- Certified as 1st Class Engineer North Shields 7 Jan 1876…r/xv).
- Voyages on "Bywell Castle", including stops at the ports of London, Newcastle on Tyne, Cardiff, Leith…r/xv).
- Voyages on "Fenella", including stops at the ports of London, Newcastle on Tyne, Cardiff, Waterford, and an unspecified foreign port…r/xv).
- Birth of daughter Josephine LANE, Jarrow, Durham Co., UK…r/xvii).
- Birth of son Robert Strong LANE, 8 Edgar St, Jarrow, Durham…r/xviii).
- Census on 3 April, 1881 shows: Joseph LANE, occ. (First) Engineer, married, age 33, male born Belfast, Ireland on the Vessel 'Despatch', Home Port: London. Tonnage: 462. Description: Three masted Schooner rigged Steamer. Trade: Coasting Vessel, Place: Anchored off Southend River, Thames at midnight April 3, 1881. Note, ALL the crew were married!…r/iii).
- Census on 3 April, 1881 shows: Joseph's family was at 8 Edgar St, Jarrow, Durham Co., UK. There were: Jane LANE wife (head of household) married age 26, born Belfast, Ireland, James LANE son, age 4 years, male, born Jarrow, Josephine Jane LANE, daughter, age 2 years, born, Jarrow, Robert Strong LANE, son, age 5 months, born Jarrow…r/iv).
- Birth of son Joseph, Strood, Kent, UK…r/xiii- r/v).
- Census on 5 April, 1891 shows: Joseph LANE, occ. Chief Engineer, married, age 43, male born Belfast, Ireland on the vessel SS "Hawthorne", Home Port: London. Tonnage: 457 Description: Schooner rigged screw steamer. Trade: Trading between London and the Tyne, Place: Derricks, London at midnight April 5, 1891. Note that 14 out of the 15 crew were married…r/iv).
- Birth of daughter Mary, Jarrow, Durham Co., UK…r/xix).
- Census shows: Joseph's family was at 25 Bede Burn Rd, Jarrow, Durham Co., UK. There were: Jane LANE, age 46, born in Ireland, Josephine LANE age 22, born in Jarrow, Robert LANE age 20, born in Jarrow, School Teacher, Joseph LANE age 18, born in Strood, Kent, Engine Fitters Apprentice, Mary LANE age 9, born in Jarrow…r/v).
- Shipwrecked on the "Swale: on 18 March 1906. The "Swale" was 3,400 tons and sank in 21 metres of water 18.8 nautical miles from Sovereign Harbour Eastbourne, Sussex, UK. Joseph's Ship's Engineer's papers were lost in the wreck…r/xv).
- Jarrow Rate Book records Joseph as the owner and occupier of 25 Bede Burn Rd, Jarrow…fb/ix). fb/ix).
- Census shows: Joseph's family was at 25 Bede Burn Rd, Jarrow, Durham Co., UK. There were: Jane LANE, age 56, born in Belfast Ireland, Josephine LANE age 32, born in Jarrow, Joseph LANE age 28, born in Strood, Kent, Marine Engineer, Mary LANE age 19, born in Jarrow…r/vi).
- Joseph died at Palmers shipbuilding and iron company's works Jarrow, on 15 June, 1915 at the age of 67, when he lived at 25 Bede Burn Rd, Jarrow. This occurred during WWI when it is reported that Palmers Works were bombed from a Zeppelin (some details below)…n/iii-iv.
Church membership, burials etc
The LANE family came from an ardently Methodist area (Cookstown Co. Tyrone), where Charles Wesley preached. Correspondence from my father with his grandmother Jane STRONG (née LANE) suggested her interest in his church confirmation. Jane also displayed a religious belief with her cross stitch sampler of "Trust in the Lord" placed in the family Bible. We also know that Jane's brother Joseph was a member of St John's Wesleyan Church Jarrow, since the Rev. J.C. Nattrass, superintendent minister, unveiled a brass tablet on 15 Aug 1920 at the Wesleyan Church, Jarrow, in memory of seven members of his congregation who lost their lives in the war (Including Joseph) .
In memory of fallen Jarrow Wesleyans. The Rev. J.C. Nattrass, at St. John's Wesleyan Church, Jarrow, on Sunday night, unveiled a brass tablet, which had been placed in the porch by the congregation, to the memory of seven members who lost their lives in the war. The names on the tablet are: Second Lieut. Arthur Coulson, M.M.; Private William Allison, Private Robert Dixon, Petty Officer Henry Pattinson, Corporal Thomas E. Slack, Private George B. Smith and Joseph Lane, who was killed at Palmers Works during the air raid on June 15, 1915. The tablet, which is framed in oak and 3 feet 6 inches in length by 24 inches in width, has been engraved by Mr. M. Hamilton, of Jarrow, who is 80 years of agen/vi-vii, w/v.
In the same year J. Conder Nattrass officiated at the burial of Joseph's daughter Mary r/xii). Joseph's granddaughter Dorothy (Doreen) LANE was married on 10 Aug 1940 at St John's.…n/xix)
There are two possible Methodist churches in Jarrow which the LANEs could have attended… St. John’s Wesleyan Chapel, which was near Edgar St where Joseph's father lived and also where Joseph lived about 1881 to 1900. This church, also known as St John's Methodist Church, was located at the corner of St John's Terrace and Albert Road. …#9 St John's Methodist Church closed when its site was cut off by the new Jarrow ring road. It was demolished in 1964 with a tree-lined patch in its place.…fb/viii)
Data from the Park Methodist centenary booklet lists possibly relevant ministers from 1919 to 1956 b/xix):
Rev B. Cook (inducted 1919); Rev D.O. Dempster (1923); Rev W.B. Barton (1945); Rev J.S. Gow from (1950); Rev W.W. Parsons ( 1956).
When we match this list against the burial officiants in the below table, it looks (by elimination) as if the LANEs mainly attended St. John’s Wesleyan Chapel. Unfortunately the only minister we know of this church was Rev Nattrass. More research is needed. See the table below where this information is collated.
|#||Date of burial||Name||Minister||Methodist Church|
|1||20 Apr 1884||James LANE||J Baker Norton|
|2||19th Jun 1915||Joseph LANE||B.C.Barker|
|3||4th Feb 1920||Mary LANE||J Conder Nattrass||St. John's|
|4||25th Jul 1927||Jane LANE||T Turnbull|
|5||8th Feb 1927||Joseph LANE||William Cooke|
|6||17th Aug 1949||James LANE||W.B.Barton||Park|
|7||25 Jan 1956||Josephine LANE||Could not read it.|
Newspapers and Periodicals.
n/i) The Baron Aberdare. The Daily Southern Cross, Auckland; Mar 20, 1875; page 2, columns 1-2.
n/ii) Sold House Prices in Bede Burn Road (between Jan 2005 & Dec 2009. Western Telegraph. Dec 6, 2009.
n/iii) Air raid on North-East Coast. Jarrow Express and Tyneside Advertiser; Jun 18,1915.
n/iv) Air raid on North-East Coast. Illustrated Chronicle; Jun 17-18,1915.
n/v) Death notice. Newcastle Evening Chronicle; Jun 18,1915.
n/vi) Unveiling of memorial. North Mail; Aug 16,1920.
n/vii) Unveiling of memorial. Newcastle Weekly Chronicle; Aug 21, 1920.
n/ix) Jarrow Memorial Tablet. Northern Echo; 16 Aug 16, 1920.
n/xix) Three Teachers From Hebburn School Newcastle Evening Chronicle; 10 Aug 1940: 6.
Archives, Registrations and Lists:
r/i) Death of Robert STRONG. Reg# 1910/1636. Registrar of BDM, New Zealand.
r/ii) Marriage of Jane STRONG & Joseph LANE. Year & quarter: Dec 1874. District: South Shields. County: Durham. Volume: 10A. Page: 1134. Number: 3.
r/iii…a) UK Census, 1871.
r/iii) UK Census, 1881.
r/iv) UK Census, 1891.
r/v) UK Census, 1901.
r/vi) UK Census, 1911.
r/vii) Irish Directories: References to James McCRACKEN. Pigot’s 1824, Martin’s 1841-1842, Henderson’s 1852.
r/viii) Birth of Mary STRONG. Year & quarter: Dec 1872. District of Belfast. Urban No. 5. Bk 13. Entry# 319.
r/ix) Birth of Sarah Anne STRONG. Year & quarter: Jun 1866. District of Belfast. Urban 4. Bk 5. Entry# 153.
r/x) Marriage of Sarah Anne LANE & William DAVISON. Year & quarter: Jun 1881. District: Gateshead. County: Durham. Volume: 10A. Page: 1074.
r/xi) Death of James LANE. Year & quarter: Jun 1884. District: South Shields. County: Durham. Volume: 10A. Page: 385.
r/xii) Jarrow Cemetery records.
a) Joseph LANE; M/F 1404, 31773; Section 2, Grave 269.
b) Mary LANE; M/F 1405, 34860; "
c) Jane LANE; M/F 1403, 39270; "
d) Joseph LANE; M/F 1403, 38960; Section 2, Grave 270.
e) James LANE; M/F1438, 49416; "
f) Josephine LANE; M/F 1438, 51494; "
g) James LANE (Snr); … ; Section R, Grave 345.
r/xiii) Birth of Joseph LANE. Year & quarter: Sep 1882. District: North Alysford & Blean. Volume: 2A. Page: 525.
r/xiv) Agnes STRONG's children died of TB: Alexander Wellesley NEILL 1914; Agnes Mabel NEILL 1911; Robert Carisbrooke NEILL 1965.
r/xv) UK- Public Record Office BT 139/7 233035. Joseph LANE, Marine Engineer’s Certificate.
r/xvi) Birth of James LANE. Year & quarter: Jun 1876. District: South Shields. County: Durham. Volume: 10A. Page: 341.
r/xvii) Birth of Josephine Jane LANE. Year & quarter: Mar 1879. District: South Shields. County: Durham. Volume: 10A. Page: 768.
r/xviii) Birth of Robert Strong LANE. Year & quarter: Dec 1880. District: South Shields. County: Durham. Volume: 10A. Page: 687.
r/xix) Birth of Mary LANE. Year & quarter: Mar 1892. District: South Shields. County: Durham. Volume: 10A. Page: 809... or 802?.
r/xx) Death of Joseph LANE. Year & quarter: Jun 1915. District: South Shields. Sub-district: Jarrow. County: Durham. Volume: 10A. Page: 1162.
r/xxi) Death of Josephine LANE. Year & quarter: Mar 1956. District: Durham North-eastern. Sub-district: Jarrow. County: Durham. Volume: 01A. Page: 548.
r/xxii) Death of Joseph LANE (Jnr). Year & quarter: Mar 1927. District: Castle Ward. Sub-district: Gosforth. County: Northumberland. Volume: 10b . Page: 472.
r/xLv) Marriage of Robert Strong & Jane Lain. Latter Day Saints Genealogy Library Film: Film # 0101434,Marriages of Belfast Ireland, #194.
r/xLvi) Marriages Lane-Stronge. The Belfast Newsletter; 16 Dec 1874:1.
Family Bibles, Wills & papers, Correspondence, Grave Stones:
fb/i) STRONG family bible, kept by Philip Strong.
fb/ii) Pers. comm: Jill Cargill, NZ (d. 8 Jul 2003).
fb/iii) Henderson W.A. Reference for Robert Stronge. Held by museum of United Masters Lodge, 167NZC, Auckland. Nov 18, 1874.
fb/iv) Somerset House Wills Index: 1853-1935.
fb/v) Pers. Comm: Pat Rooney, of Co. Durham, a direct descendant of Robert Strong LANE. 2004.
fb/vi) Interview by Brian Strong of Robert William Strong 18 Nov 1978. Note: R.W. Strong was born 11 Jan 1904, son of William Aberdare Strong.
fb/vii) England & Wales, National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administrations),1861-1941.
fb/viii) Pers.comm: Vin Mullen of Co. Durham, UK. 2009-2010.
fb/ix) Pers. comm: Margaret Hall of Northumberland, UK. 2002-2006.
m/i) 1917 OS Survey map of Jarrow etc. Durham Sheet III. 12.
b/xix) Norman Scott (Ed.). Park Methodist Church Jarrow: 1885-1985. Private publication; 1985.
w/v) North East War Memorials Project (NEWMP). Plaque at St. John's Wesleyan Church, Jarrow. Here.
I am grateful to my new relatives Gladys LANE, Tony APPLETON and Pat ROONEY who provided valuable information, photos and documents. Particularly to Tony who carried out local field work by using my information to locate and photograph houses and graves. I am grateful to readers of this page who have contacted me with useful information… including Vin MULLEN (a "Geordie lad in Jarrow") who told me about what had happened to some of the LANE addresses and provided great photos of Jarrow. Vin has been a great correspondent and has even photographed the LANE home after heavy snow falls! Vin's inside knowledge of the shipyard industry with his encyclopaedic memory of the history of Jarrow has been essential to much of this task. My friend Margaret HALL of Wallsend, Northumberland has most generously spent much time in the archives of Newcastle upon Tyne on my behalf. The North East War Memorials Project (NEWMP) chairman Janet BROWN from Morpeth, kindly forwarded images of the newspaper articles about the unveiling of the memorial plaque which included Joseph LANE. NEWMP founder James Pasby has spent much valuable time in the Tyne & Wear Archives on my behalf. Bill HARTMANN posted an obit of Joseph LANE from the Newcastle Evening Chronicle 18 Jun 1915, with partial images of articles from the Illustrated Chronicle referring to the air raid 17-18 Jun 1915… all in the JarrowLife Forum. He also referred me to his web site where he had placed an extract from a War Office report of the raid and an associated map. The local libraries were most cooperative: South Shields sent the air raid article from the Jarrow Express and Tyneside Advertiser. 18 Jun, 1915. Similarly, the Newcastle Library sent images of the complete air raid articles from the Newcastle Evening Chronicle 17-18 Jun 1915. Sylvia BLACK, Senior Church Steward of the Park Methodist church kindly looked up details of their ministers. Thanks also to the JarrowLife and Hebburn Forums for their welcome and help extended to a Colonial visitor. Ian Castle kindly enabled a breathrough in obtaining the relevant National Archives file on the Zeppelin raid.
The Story Continues
- Chapter 8 Children (v): Death of Joseph LANE & the Zeppelin Raid [15 Jun 1915 Jarrow]