Appendices to 'The STRONGs of Ulster, Ireland'.
… section 1

The "STRONG Family" section of this site is divided into 12 sections and 9 appendices. Please read in sequence by following the links at the bottom of each page or use the "Quick Nav" at top right. If you wish to select individual chapters, please click on the top left link to the "Sitemap" page. Note that the chapters develop the story of our family and the appendices contain supporting data… for example the Descendancy Report in Appendix 1 with BDM records and photos of family members.

Do you have information, opinion or a question relating to either this site’s contents or its copyright? Please use the e-mail link available at the bottom of each page. I look forward to corresponding with you.

The appendices are as follows:

… note that this page contains section 1, and that there is a separate page for each section of the appendix.

  1. … this page
    1. Appendix 1: A Descendant Report of the STRONG Family— BDM records + photos
    2. Appendix 2: Internet sites that have been useful in researching this site
    3. Appendix 3: Some thoughts on the use of DNA technology
    4. Appendix 4: 'Similar'. Speculation concerning photograph identification
  2. Appendices Section 2: Belfast Records
    1. Appendix 5: 'Stayed in Belfast'. What if Robert STRONG had brothers who remained in Belfast and did not emigrate?
  3. Appendices Section 3: Hamilton STRONG in the USA
    1. Appendix 6: ‘The search for Hamilton STRONG’ Did he emigrate to the United States?
  4. Appendices Section 4: Further Biographical Details
    1. Appendix 7: Obituary of John Burgess MACKAY:
  5. Appendices Section 5: Holywood Records
    1. Appendix 8: Accumulated data relating to the STRONGs and SLOAN(E)s of Holywood Parish & Knocknagoney Townland.
  6. Appendices Section 6: CALLAGHANs… the family next door.
    1. Appendix 9: CALLAGHANs lived next door to David STRONG. The two families were significant to each other and David's son Edward STRONG married Ruby CALLAGHAN.

Appendix 1: STRONG Descendant Report

Every effort has been made to exclude all living relatives in this report. Please contact me for more information about your section of our family. Click here to download the Descendant Report, which has been placed in Adobe Acrobat format. This is the sixth version which now contains photographs of many more of the people included. Do you have photos or better photos of any of these people? Please take note of which people do not have photos against their record.... perhaps you can help?


Appendix 2: Links


Appendix 3: DNA Research

A current project in the STRONG families world-wide is testing the DNA of the "Y" chromosomes (males only). It is hoped to establish which STRONG families are most closely related. David STRONG's web site has details of this DNA project.

Perhaps we might even find if our STRONG family is ultimately descended from Vikings, as my father suggested to me when I was a little boy. However, there is a shortage of living male STRONG descendants with the STRONG name who are direct descendants of our Robert STRONG (b. 1830). Robert only had two sons (David and William Aberdare) who had male children. Through these two lines Robert only had 5 grand sons (all deceased), 4 g-g sons (all living), 2 g-g-g sons (all living) who are in a direct line from Robert.

There are no g-g-g-g sons on the horizon at all, thus this family's STRONG name will probably die out, and the possibilities for male DNA testing will also disappear. Out of 6 living possibilities for our family, I have provided one DNA sample. David STRONG's website has the details of my DNA results ..... scroll down to the heading "TYNAN ABBEY ASSUMED HAPLOTYPE" and my Kit# 6256 is placed in this group. You will note the lack of an exact match between my kit and the others, showing that if there was a common ancestor, it would have been probably many generations ago.

The Tynan Abbey STRONGEs are related to the Rev.Sir James STRONGE 1st Baronet of Tynan Abbey, County Armagh, Ireland, who was created Baronet in 1803. His descendants include a Deputy Lieutenant, Counties Armagh and Tyrone, a High Sheriff of Armagh & of Tyrone, an MP, etc. Perhaps this might explain why the Mayor of Belfast gave a reference in favour of my g-grandfather in the name of STRONGE (an aristocratic spelling?) if both the Mayor and g-grandfather (wishful thinking?) thought Robert was part of the Tynan Abbey family. The Mayor said: " I have much pleasure in certifying that I have known Mr Robert STRONGE for many years as foreman and general manager."

Rationale for the DNA Project

Why am I participating in the DNA study? I hope that the following explanation might persuade the STRONGs of other family groups who still hesitate, to take the step of signing up. We need the participation of those who hesitate in this cooperative venture. Your results have great potential both for yourself and for us. We have only a certain amount of time, energy and resources we can spend on our researches. DNA results allow us to prioritise our efforts and direct them to areas which have the greatest chance of success. Many of us have pre-conceived notions of which branches of the STRONG family our own family is related to. Accordingly we have collected information about these branches, hoping to establish definite links at some later stage... using the usual rigorous genealogical standards of proof. What if we are wrong? We have wasted valuable time! Let's now use the information which you found if you followed the DNA Project link above.

The Hypothetical Situation

Suppose you have joined the DNA Survey and you obtain a result such as:

  1. all 37 markers match with a hypothetical George W. STRONG with family from Tyrone.
  2. no matches elsewhere

Perhaps you felt that your family came from Donegal .. this now seems impossible because of data such as:

DNA ResultsSpreadsheet comparison of my family’s DNA Results (middle row 6256) with a Donegal Bay STRONG result (top row 5811)… matches in red. Also with the closest match of a Co. Antrim → South Carolina USA STRONG (bottom row 6386)… mis-matches in blue.

In this example I compare my genetic markers in Kit 6256 with a kit 5811 of STRONGs from Donegal, and this comparison shows there are only 18 matches (coloured red) out of 37 genetic markers. You accordingly divert your energies from say Co. Donegal into the history of Co. Tyrone and links with George W.'s family, since there is a 50% probability that the Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA) shared by your family and George W.'s family is 7 generations OR less from the person who provided the sample. Here you make a detour from the certainties of genealogical proof to probabilities and statistics.... this may be the sticking point for some. As a biologist I never found the mathematics of statistics an easy study.

You have a 50/50 chance. You have to hope for the favourable 50% in which the MRCA is less than 7, and acknowledge that the precise generation in which the MRCA connection is made is not given, just a range with a probability of 50%. I stress.... you continue with the same standards of proof for placing a person in a family tree.... the DNA data may give us a better idea of where to look. Let's suppose that you can only go back 5 generations to your g-g-g grandfather Cyril STRONGE b. 1802. What do you do now? You now know with George W.'s information, that you are in with a chance to look for STRONGs in Co. Tyrone around 1800 at a mere 6 generations back... a distinctly possible MRCA within the 50% chance that the MRCA is less than 7? A better prospect than looking exclusively in County Donegal! AND THAT GIVES FOCUS TO YOUR RESEARCH EFFORTS, POTENTIALLY SAVING VALUABLE TIME AND MONEY!

Regrettably, I have not yet found anybody like the hypothetical George W. STRONG with a match in all 37 markers! However, we do have a relative match with a STRONG family originating in Co. Antrim and emigrating to South Carolina USA. I compare my genetic markers in Kit 6256 with a kit 6386 of STRONGs from South Carolina (also in the table above), and this comparison shows there are only 3 markers which do NOT match (coloured blue) out of 37 genetic markers. Dave Strong (co-ordinator of the STRONG DNA Project) discusses the meaning of such matches.

Why am I personally excited about the prospect of DNA results? My g-g-g grandfather was John STRONG of Drumbo, Co. Down, perhaps b. ~1775. I have recently found an American family who also claims a John STRONG of Drumbo around the same time. How many John STRONGs in that area at that time? If it was the same John STRONG, then he escaped to the USA and raised another family over there. As I write, I hope that a male STRONG of this USA family is using his DNA toothbrush and a match will be made with my family! DNA is surely a chance for a major breakthrough in our family history in our own life time!


Appendix 4: Similar

An obvious genetic technique is to ask .... "do they look similar?" Let's use this on a problem photo beneath, which looks like a probable family reunion of my father Robert STRONG's parents' families (STRONGs and the WEDEMEYERs). Robert is a definite identification and his age gives the date of the photo ~1930. The occasion could be Robert's uncle Willie from New Zealand (William Aberdare) coming to meet the family including his sick brother, Joseph.

Probable family reunionProblem Photo.

Robert is now shown with the two unknown people from the above photo who could be STRONGs, (Robert in the centre, "Unknown 1" on the left, "Unknown 2" on the right):

Robert STRONG with two unknown peopleRobert STRONG (centre) with two unknown people.

Have a look at the photographic evidence for saying these unknowns could be STRONGs .... do you agree?

Attempted identification of the 'Unknown' personAttempted identification of "Unknown 2".

In the photo at the left we match "Unknown 2" with a present generation STRONG. Is there a family likeness? It is possible that "Unknown 2" was Joe STRONG b. 1868, when he was taken from hospital around 1930 to a family gathering at David STRONG's home. Perhaps "Unknown 2" is an guest of honour in poor health, and could even be in a wheel chair, which would match the information in the page "Joseph". If Joe is seated in the front row of the family gathering photo, then his daughter Dulcie, who was aged 33 at that time (note the high STRONG forehead), could be seated on his left. His wife Bella, aged 68 at that time, could be standing behind him and holding his chair. Rev. Robert STRONG knew Joseph, since he later conducted his funeral in 1930.

Wm Aberdare STRONG photos Attempted identification of "Unknown 1".

Four known photos of William Aberdare STRONG are placed against the photo of "Unknown 1" on the bottom right. Is there a likeness? William had that look as if he didn't want to be photographed, apart from the bottom left photo when he was being married. Particularly look at William's prominent jaw and distinctive eyes and ears.

My father, Robert STRONG, made an accurate comment about William Aberdare: "I met Uncle Willie of Drury... he had 3 sons, 2 of them (I think) were school teachers". Perhaps the group photo above was of the occasion he met "Willie". William Aberdare STRONG's niece, Olive LOWE (née STEEN), remembers William as a tall man, which tallies with the group photo.

I look forward to better photos of a middle-aged William Aberdare which might resolve this question. William could well have been at a meeting with his sick brother Joseph. At the very least, he must have known about Joe's illness and long stay in hospital, since a typed transcription of a newspaper article about Joe's 26-year stay in hospital was found at the back of a cupboard shelf in William's grandson's home in NZ. Thanks to Brian STRONG for forwarding this transcript.

Weighing up other evidence such as age, health and association with others in the photo, there is a chance that "Unknown (1)" is William Aberdare STRONG b. 1875 and "Unknown (2)" is Joseph STRONG b.1868. On the other hand, this all might be an imaginative exercise?

The Story Continues